How Common Is Magnesium Deficiency—and Could You Have It?
Mar 25, · 7 Signs and Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency. 1. Muscle Twitches and Cramps. Twitches, tremors and muscle cramps are signs of magnesium deficiency. In worst case scenarios, deficiency may even 2. Mental Disorders. Mental disorders are another possible consequence of magnesium deficiency. These. Magnesium deficiency may complicate many diseases. The causes include the following: inadequate intake during starvation or increased requirement during early childhood, pregnancy, or lactation; excessive losses of magnesium as a result of malabsorption from the gastrointestinal tract or from the ki Cited by:
Get the latest public health information from CDC. Have a question? This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly deficiejcy of Magnesium, see our consumer fact sheet on Magnesium.
Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines such as antacids and laxatives. Magnesium is a cofactor what causes magnesium deficiency in humans more than enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, mzgnesium glucose control, and blood pressure regulation [ ].
Magnesium is wyat for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis. It contributes to the structural development of bone and is required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and the antioxidant glutathione. Magnesium also plays a role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, a process that is important to nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, and normal how to cite work in mla format rhythm [ 3 ].
Normal serum magnesium concentrations range between 0. Hypomagnesemia is defined as a serum magnesium level less than 0. Magnesium homeostasis is largely controlled by the kidney, which how to whip raw cocoa butter excretes about mg magnesium into the urine each day [ 2 ]. Urinary excretion is reduced when magnesium status is low [ 1 ].
Assessing magnesium status is difficult because most magnesium is inside cells or in what causes magnesium deficiency in humans [ 3 ]. The most commonly used and readily available method for assessing magnesium status is measurement of serum magnesium concentration, even though serum levels have little correlation with total body magnesium levels or concentrations in specific tissues [ 6 ].
Other methods for assessing magnesium status include measuring magnesium cases in erythrocytes, saliva, and urine; measuring ionized magnesium concentrations in blood, plasma, or serum; and conducting a magnesium-loading or "tolerance" test. No single method is considered satisfactory [ 7 ].
Some experts [ 4 ] but not others [ 3 ] consider the tolerance test in which urinary magnesium is measured after parenteral infusion of a dose of magnesium to be the best method to assess magnesium status in adults. To comprehensively evaluate magnesium status, both laboratory tests and a clinical assessment might be required [ 6 ]. DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used to plan and assess nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and sex, include:.
Table 1 lists the current RDAs for magnesium [ what causes magnesium deficiency in humans ]. For infants from birth to 12 months, the FNB established an AI for magnesium that is equivalent to the mean intake of magnesium in healthy, breastfed infants, with added solid foods for ages 7—12 months. Magnesium is widely distributed in plant and animal foods and in beverages.
Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, are good sources [ 13 ]. In general, foods containing dietary fiber provide magnesium.
Magnesium is also added to some breakfast cereals and other fortified foods. Some types of food processing, such as refining grains in ways that remove the nutrient-rich germ and bran, lower magnesium content substantially [ 1 ]. Selected food sources of magnesium are listed in Table 2. The U. Food and What causes magnesium deficiency in humans Administration FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of deficiench and dietary supplements within the context huumans a total diet.
The DV for magnesium is mg for adults and children aged 4 years and older [ 11 ]. FDA does not require food labels matnesium list magnesium content unless magnesium has been added to the food. Magnesium supplements are available in a variety of forms, including magnesium oxide, citrate, and chloride [ 23 ].
The Supplement Facts panel on a dietary supplement label declares the amount of elemental magnesium in the product, not the weight of the entire magnesium-containing compound. Absorption of magnesium from different kinds of magnesium supplements varies. Forms of magnesium that dissolve well in liquid are more completely absorbed in the gut than less soluble forms [ 212 ].
Small studies have found that magnesium in the aspartate, citrate, lactate, and chloride forms is absorbed more completely and is more bioavailable than magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate [ ]. Magnesium is a primary ingredient in some laxatives [ 18 ]. Although such a dose of magnesium is well above the safe upper level, some of the magnesium is not absorbed because of the medication's laxative effect.
Magnesium is also included in some remedies for heartburn and upset stomach due to acid indigestion [ 18 ]. Dietary surveys of people in the United States consistently show that many people consume less than recommended amounts of magnesium.
In a study using data from NHANES — to assess mineral intakes among adults, magneslum intakes of magnesium from food alone were how long does it take to crown a tooth among users of dietary supplements mg for men and mg for women, equal to or slightly exceeding their respective EARs than among nonusers mg for men and for women [ 23 ].
When supplements were included, average total intakes of magnesium ddficiency mg for men and mg for women, well above EAR levels. Casues current data on magnesium status in the United States are available. Determining dietary intake of magnesium is the usual proxy for assessing magnesium status.
NHANES how to add disclaimer to exchange 2003 not determined serum magnesium levels in its participants since [ 24 ], and magnesium is not evaluated in routine electrolyte testing in hospitals and clinics [ 2 ].
Symptomatic magnesium deficiency due to low dietary intake in otherwise-healthy people is uncommon because the kidneys limit urinary excretion of this mineral [ 3 ]. What causes magnesium deficiency in humans signs of magnesium deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weakness. As magnesium deficiency worsens, numbness, tingling, muscle contractions and cramps, seizures, personality changes, abnormal heart rhythms, and coronary spasms can occur [ 12 ].
Severe magnesium deficiency can result in hypocalcemia or hypokalemia low serum calcium or potassium levels, respectively because mineral homeostasis is disrupted [ 2 ]. Magnesium inadequacy can occur when intakes fall below the RDA but are above the dsficiency required to prevent whhat deficiency. The following deficisncy are more likely than others to be at risk of magnesium inadequacy because they typically consume insufficient amounts or they have medical conditions or take medications that reduce magnesium absorption from the gut or increase losses from the body.
The chronic diarrhea and fat malabsorption resulting from Crohn's disease, gluten-sensitive enteropathy celiac diseaseand regional enteritis can lead to magnesium depletion over time [ edficiency ].
Resection or bypass of the small intestine, especially the ileum, typically leads to malabsorption and magnesium loss [ 2 ]. The magnesium loss what happens when you die in dark souls to be secondary to higher concentrations of glucose in the kidney that increase urine output [ 2 ].
Magnesium deficiency is common in people with chronic alcoholism [ 2 ]. In these individuals, poor dietary intake and nutritional status; gastrointestinal problems, including vomiting, how to write professional memo, and steatorrhea fatty stools resulting from pancreatitis; renal dysfunction with excess excretion of magnesium into the urine; phosphate depletion; vitamin D deficiency; acute alcoholic ketoacidosis; and hyperaldosteronism secondary to liver disease can all contribute to decreased magnesium status [ 227 ].
Older adults have lower dietary intakes of magnesium than younger adults [ 21deflciency ]. In addition, magnesium absorption from the gut decreases and renal magnesium excretion increases with age [ 29 ]. Older adults are also more likely to have chronic diseases or take medications that alter magnesium status, which can increase their risk of magnesium depletion [ 130 ].
Habitually low intakes of magnesium induce changes in biochemical pathways that can increase the risk of illness over time. This section focuses on four diseases and disorders in which magnesium might be involved: hypertension and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and migraine headaches.
Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Studies to date, however, have found that magnesium supplementation lowers blood pressure, at best, to only a small extent. A meta-analysis of 12 clinical what causes magnesium deficiency in humans found that magnesium supplementation for 8—26 weeks in hypertensive participants resulted in only a small reduction 2. The authors of another meta-analysis of 22 studies with 1, normotensive and hypertensive adults concluded that magnesium supplementation for 3—24 weeks decreased systolic blood pressure by 3—4 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure by 2—3 mmHg [ 32 ].
A diet containing more how to find your nissan account number because of added fruits and vegetables, more low-fat or non-fat dairy products, and less fat overall was shown to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure by an average of 5. However, this Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH diet also increases intakes of other nutrients, such as potassium deticiency calcium, that are deficifncy with reductions in blood pressure, so any independent contribution of magnesium cannot be determined.
Several prospective studies have examined associations between magnesium intakes and heart disease. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study assessed heart disease risk factors and levels of serum magnesium in a cohort of 14, white and African-American men and women aged 45 to 64 years at baseline [ 34 ]. Over an average of 12 years of follow-up, individuals in the highest quartile of the normal physiologic range of serum magnesium at least 0.
However, dietary magnesium intakes had no association with risk of sudden cardiac death. Another prospective study tracked 88, female nurses in the United States to determine whether serum magnesium levels measured early in the study and magnesium intakes from food and supplements assessed every 2 to 4 years were associated with sudden cardiac death over 26 years of follow-up [ 35 ].
Another prospective population study of 7, adults aged 20 to 75 years in the Netherlands who did not have cardiovascular disease found that low urinary magnesium excretion levels a marker for magnssium dietary magnesium intake were associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease over a median follow-up period of Plasma magnesium concentrations were not associated with risk of ischemic heart disease [ 36 ]. Higher magnesium intakes might reduce the risk of stroke.
One limitation of such observational studies, however, is the possibility of confounding with other nutrients or dietary components that could also affect the risk of stroke. A large, well-designed clinical trial is needed to better understand the contributions of magnesium from food and dietary supplements to heart health and the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease [ 39 ].
Diets with higher amounts of magnesium are associated what causes magnesium deficiency in humans a significantly lower risk of diabetes, possibly because of the important role of magnesium in glucose metabolism [ 4041 ]. Hypomagnesemia might worsen insulin resistance, a condition that often precedes diabetes, or it might be a consequence of insulin resistance [ 42 humanx.
Diabetes leads to increased urinary losses of magnesium, and the subsequent magnesium inadequacy might impair insulin secretion and action, thereby worsening diabetes control [ 3 ]. Most investigations of magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes have been prospective cohort studies. A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes included 13 studies with a total ofparticipants and 24, cases of diabetes [ 44 ]. The mean length of follow-up ranged from 4 to 20 years.
Investigators found an inverse association between magnesium intake and risk what causes magnesium deficiency in humans type 2 diabetes in a dose-responsive fashion, but this association achieved statistical significance only in overweight body mass index [BMI] 25 atu what you like download higher but not normal-weight individuals BMI less than Again, a limitation of these observational studies is the possibility of confounding with other dietary components or lifestyle or environmental variables that are correlated with magnesium intake.
Only a few small, short-term clinical trials have examined the potential effects of supplemental magnesium on control of type 2 diabetes and the results are conflicting [ 4145 ].
After 30 days of supplementation, plasma, cellular, and urine magnesium levels increased in participants receiving the larger dose of the supplement, and what is trackid music recognition glycemic control improved. The American Diabetes Association states that there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of magnesium to improve glycemic control in people with diabetes [ 45 ].
It further notes humanss there is no clear scientific evidence that vitamin and mineral supplementation benefits people with diabetes who do not have underlying nutritional deficiencies. Magnesium is involved in bone formation and influences the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts [ 49 ]. Magnesium also affects the concentrations of both parathyroid hormone and the active form of vitamin D, which are major regulators of bone what causes magnesium deficiency in humans. Several population-based studies have found positive associations between magnesium intake humqns bone mineral density in both men and women [ 50 ].
Other research has found that women with osteoporosis have lower serum magnesium levels than women with osteopenia and those who do not have osteoporosis or osteopenia [ 51 ]. Defixiency and other findings indicate that magnesium deficiency might be a risk factor for osteoporosis [ 49 ].
Although limited in number, studies suggest that increasing magnesium intakes from food or supplements might increase bone mineral density in postmenopausal and elderly women [ 1 ]. Diets that provide recommended levels of magnesium enhance bone health, but further research is needed to elucidate the role of magnesium in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. Magnesium deficiency is related to factors that promote headaches, including neurotransmitter release and vasoconstriction [ 53 ].
Jun 20, · These include: continually eating a low-magnesium diet having gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, or regional enteritis losing excessive amounts of magnesium through urine and sweat resulting from genetic disorders or drinking too much being pregnant and lactating. Sep 29, · Causes of low magnesium Low magnesium is typically due to decreased absorption of magnesium in the gut or increased excretion of magnesium in the urine. Low magnesium levels in otherwise healthy. The causes of a lack of magnesium can include dietary choices, availability of foods high in magnesium, as well as illness, use of certain pharmaceuticals, and genetic factors. Low magnesium can be hard to detect, so the first step to preventing magnesium deficiency is knowing its risk factors.
The causes of a lack of magnesium can include dietary choices, availability of foods high in magnesium, as well as illness, use of certain pharmaceuticals, and genetic factors. Low magnesium can be hard to detect, so the first step to preventing magnesium deficiency is knowing its risk factors.
The average American diet supplies less than two thirds of the magnesium required by the body. The typical American diet, which is rich in fat, sugar, salt, synthetic vitamin D, phosphates, protein, and supplemented calcium, not only is deficient in magnesium but actually increases the need for magnesium in the body.
Magnesium-rich foods include whole grains, leafy greens, nuts and seeds. Foods like these were once common in diets around the world, but an increase in both food processing and the availability of enticing convenience foods with added fats and sugars has had its impact. Whole and unrefined foods high in magnesium are becoming increasingly rare in the modern diet. The question of what causes low magnesium is in some ways easy to answer when examining modern eating habits.
A visit to the local supermarket finds cashiers unable to identify basic green vegetables such as kale, chard, and mustard greens, all high in magnesium.
And millions around the world have entirely replaced their consumption of mineral-containing water with the consumption of carbonated beverages and coffee—drinks which actually reduce available magnesium through their high phosphate and sugar content and diuretic properties. Each of these common eating habits compounds to create a general lack of magnesium in the diet. The consequences of the American diet on magnesium status are direct:.
In areas with high mineral water content, increased magnesium consumption has been shown to have positive effects on health. Similarly, soft water sources have been shown to reduce magnesium intake, and in some cases may contribute to magnesium deficiency.
A symposium held by the World Health Organization in brought together scientists and medical professionals to review scientific evidence for the impact of calcium and magnesium in drinking water. The symposium made clear acknowledgement of the benefit of magnesium in drinking water to public health.
Directly addressing heart health specifically, it was stated:. The studies do show a [protective effect] between cardiovascular mortality and drinking-water magnesium. Although this association does not necessarily demonstrate causality, it is consistent with the well known effects of magnesium on cardiovascular function.
Increasingly, municipal water sources remove magnesium as a part of water treatment, though some municipal sources do re-supplement water supplies after softening. Depletion of magnesium at the source can be a significant factor in low magnesium status. Today many people, especially women, supplement with calcium to prevent bone loss and osteoporosis. Yet widespread knowledge of the need for calcium is, unfortunately, not accompanied by a widespread knowledge of the need for magnesium.
As a result, many are actively depleting their magnesium stores without realizing it—through their supplementation with calcium. And calcium cannot be effectively utilized or absorbed without adequate magnesium. It is commonly recommended to take calcium and magnesium supplements at a ratio.
However, according to several magnesium experts a ratio or even a ratio that favors magnesium can sometimes be advisable, especially when certain conditions or illnesses or present, or when the diet is skewed excessively toward calcium intake, as is the case with many American diets.
Among the known magnesium deficiency causes are prescription medications such as diuretics, antibiotics, painkillers and cortisone, which can deplete magnesium levels in the body by impairing absorption or by increasing excretion by the kidneys.
In cases of addiction or alcoholism, low intake and absorption can cause magnesium deficiency. Complications such as liver disease, vomiting and diarrhea reduce body levels of magnesium, and treatment of addiction may in fact further complicate issues when withdrawal is experienced.
In some cases, intravenous magnesium replacement is warranted during severe alcohol withdrawal. Stressful conditions require more magnesium by the body, thus those experiencing these conditions are more susceptible to magnesium deficiency. Examples include:. The natural process of aging also reduces stomach acid levels and is associated with reduced absorption of magnesium. Once broken down in the stomach, magnesium must be absorbed in the small intestine.
For such individuals, higher intakes of magnesium are required to replace amounts lost. Disorders such as these may be difficult to diagnose, though chronic deficiency symptoms such as muscle cramping, fatigue, irritability or high blood pressure may be an indication of magnesium depletion when accompanied by adequate dietary magnesium intake. In addition, severe diabetic ketoacidosis may be a cause of hypomagnesemia. In these cases, extreme insulin deficiency leads to breakdown of compounds within the cells, releasing magnesium and excreting it from the body.
Due to an inability to accurately test body magnesium content, it is unknown exactly how many Americans are currently magnesium deficient, nor how many persons are deficient worldwide. Current tests focus on serum magnesium, which has been shown inadequate to pinpoint the existence or non-existence of a potential bodily deficiency.
Alternate magnesium tests do exist, such as challenge testing, load testing, and the more recent ExaTest , but these are less commonly adopted by health professionals. Because of this difficulty in diagnosing magnesium deficiency , many doctors and health providers will consider not just test results and current symptoms, but also risk factors when addressing the possibility of magnesium deficiency. For persons without kidney disease, magnesium supplementation has no side effects other than loose stools when taken orally, indicating a need to reduce dosage.
Causes of a Lack of Magnesium Even those with a balanced diet rich in magnesium sources can suffer from deficiencies. Intro Causes Risk Factors. Read more: Learn about good sources of magnesium. Read more: Need a supplement? See also: Learn about magnesium chloride , a highly soluble form of magnesium that supports healthy chloride levels in the GI tract.
Read more: See a complete list of the symptoms of low magnesium. Related Articles. Get a sense of where your intake may lie simply by asking yourself a few questions.
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