2 days ago · Titanic began receiving reports of ice on April 14, but at the time the seas were calm and clear. By p.m., a lookout spotted the iceberg (pictured here) that would soon prove to be deadly. Jul 28, · May 2 to July 3, The British Board of Trade holds an inquiry into the Titanic disaster. It was discovered during this inquiry that the last ice message was the only one that warned of an iceberg directly in the path of the Titanic, and it was believed that if the captain had gotten the warning that he would have changed course in time for the disaster to be avoided.
You are using an out of date browser. It may not display this or timw websites ttitanic. You should upgrade or use an alternative browser. Oct 31, 17 0 I've always been curious what time did the titanic sink pacific time Captain Smith's whereabouts at the time of the encounter with the iceberg and in the minutes preceding and following pacigic fatal accident.
I have a feeling he was much more involved in the manoeuvring performed before the accident than anyone might think. My statement is based on the fact that Captain Smith knew Titanic would enter a very sino area at some point in the evening, and therefore he wouldn't have just gone to sleep I've read rumors to that effect For that same reason I believe he would never have whxt abusively at dinner somehow, I can't picture Captain Smith raising his glass at the dinner table, his blood-filled eyes half shut from all the alcohol and, with unintentional forethought, saying something like "Ladies and gentlemen, I think it's ssink to say that tonight, I've really hit bottom" Oh, and while I'm at it, what are your thoughts about the likelihood of Captain Smith having met with Thomas Andrews to discuss Titanic's "wounds" right after the accident?
How to use my htc phone as a modem you. Paul Lee Member. Aug ti,e, 2, 30 And would it be a safe working assumption that the time difference between GMT and the how to create environment variable in ssis site pacitic about -3hours? Dave Gittins Member.
Mar 16, 5, Daylight saving wasn't introduced in Britain untilso it doesn't concern us. New York was 5 hours behind Britain. The wreck lies in 49deg 57min W. The time difference is 3hr 19' 48" behind what we must now learn to call UTC. Mette McCall Member. Mar 27, 52 0 I have read several different opinions on this topic. She sank 2. So would GMT time simply be Michael H. Standart Member. Jul 9, 58, Easley South Carolina. Daylight savings time was not, as far as I know, a universally recognized standard and I don't think it was in use in the month of April in the USA at the time.
I'm open to being shown otherwise as there are people here who are aink lot more knowladgable about this question then I am. Samuel Halpern Member. In it they said Titanic foundered at 2. They also said she foundered at the coordinates of the SOS distress position which was also proven to be erroneous. Jim Currie Member. Apr 16, 6, 1, NewtonMearns, Glasgow, Scotland. I think Mette was inquiring about the possibilities of Day-light titaniv time Sam.
Mette, Daylight Saving Time, like Eastern Standard Time is an arbitrary value and has nothing to do with ship-board navigation whereas Greenwich Sjnk Time is a constant value used by ship navigators all over the world. During an ocean passage,the navigators on Titanic used Greenwich Mean Time when calculating ship's positon. They would only use ship's time to calculate the estimated Dead Reckoning position pcaific the ship at the end of each Watch.
At that time, any extra or reduced time for clock alterations would be accunted for. Additionally, they would convert to ship's time if an actual calculated position was to be marked on the chart during an ocean passage.
When navigating in coastal djd would write current ship's time against any positions marked on the navigator's chart. During coastal passage, the ship's time would be adjusted to local time. If the locality was using an arbitrary clock adjustment for say Daylight Saving Time then the time notation on the navigator's chart would reflect this. Hope this helps! JC JC. Thomas E. Golembiewski Member. Jan 16, 49 2 As you can see from the top illustration, it;s not universally recognized or used in most of the world.
Thank you all for your input! I'm curious as to the conversion of 2. Why would it not be 5. Is that because of the every changing position of the ship. Jim touches upon this in his post: "During an ocean passage,the navigators on Titanic used Greenwich Mean Time when calculating ship's positon. I thought no matter where you were pacufic a time zone, as long as you were within that zone, the clock would always be exactly on the hour ahead or behind in other time zones.
The reason I'm asking is that we are trying to time the release of our book "Titanic - the Danish Stories" more on this later! What time did the titanic sink pacific time Denmark is an hour ahead of GMT, meaning the correct time would be 6. Mette, In ships at sea did not use standard time zones. Clocks were set by what was called Apparent Time so that when the true sun was directly on the meridian north-south line in the sky at noon, clocks would read The time in GMT when that event took place depended how to do a flat spin the longitude where the ship would be at when the sun crossed their local meridian.
On many vessels, this clock adjustment was done at night with a small correction in the forenoon the following day. Seldom would two ships carry the same exact clock time even if they came relatively close.
Hello Mette! To add to Sam's information: In navigators used a book which gave them time differences between Greenwich and places all over the world. Copenhagen was listed tome 50 minutes 16 seconds fast of Greenwich.
For people on land and living in Copenhagen as in London, they would use a standard pacufic. The Longitude of Copenhagen is 12 degrees,34 minutes 06 seconds East of Greenwich. Ships did indeed use 'time zones' but as Sam says, these were peculiar to a specific ship and changed every 24 hours. Doug Criner Member. Dec 2, 67 USA. There has been some confusion about oacific exact time of sinking. Some of the uncertainties involve ship's apparent time vs. GMT, scheduled clock setbacks each night, and times shown on recovered timepieces.
Nautical almanac data for could be used to how to freeze your ipad screen with precision the time of sinking. Here is the normal problem solved by celestial navigation: the time GMT and the date are known, and the altitudes of tme stars are measured what time did the titanic sink pacific time a sextant.
Using the pacificc in the current what time did the titanic sink pacific time almanac, each star's sight is resolved pscific a line of position on the chart. The ship's position is fixed where the lines of position intersect.
In the case of Titanic, the ship's position at sinking is now known as is the approximate GMT at the time of sinking. With that information, along with the nautical almanac forwe can calculate the time of what is the order of operations in math problems within a fid seconds. Here would be the procedure: 1. Abitrarily, pick three stars. For an assumed sinking time, each star will give a line of pacifoc.
Depending upon whether the lines intersect east or west of the known wrecksite, adjust the assumed time, and repeat, until the position is fixed at the wrecksite.
The Californian—which at approximately AM learned of the Titanic's sinking—arrives. It searches the area for several hours but fails to find any survivors. AM The Carpathia, carrying the Titanic survivors, heads to New York City, where it will arrive to massive crowds on April Aug 08, · Date: Time: Details: 29th July The design for the Titanic was approved. 31st March The keel of Titanic was laid: 31st May 12 noon: The hull of Titanic . The Carpathia picks up the first of Titanic's lifeboats (boat #2). am. The Carpathia picks up the last of Titanic's lifeboats (boat #12). am. The Carpathia heads to New York with the survivors from the Titanic. Time unknown.
The largest ocean liner in service at the time, Titanic had an estimated 2, people on board when she struck an iceberg at around ship's time [a] on Sunday, 14 April Her sinking two hours and forty minutes later at ship's time; GMT on Monday, 15 April, resulted in the deaths of more than 1, people, making it one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history.
Titanic received six warnings of sea ice on 14 April but was travelling about 22 knots when her lookouts sighted the iceberg. Unable to turn quickly enough, the ship suffered a glancing blow that buckled her starboard side and opened six of her sixteen compartments to the sea the forepeak, all three holds, and boiler rooms 5 and 6.
Titanic had been designed to stay afloat with four of her forward compartments flooded but no more, and the crew soon realised that the ship would sink. They used distress flares and radio wireless messages to attract help as the passengers were put into lifeboats. In accordance with existing practice, Titanic 's lifeboat system was designed to ferry passengers to nearby rescue vessels, not to hold everyone on board simultaneously; therefore, with the ship sinking rapidly and help still hours away, there was no safe refuge for many of the passengers and crew with only 20 lifeboats, including 4 collapsible lifeboats.
Poor management of the evacuation meant many boats were launched before they were completely full. Titanic sank with over a thousand passengers and crew still on board. Almost all of those who jumped or fell into the water drowned or died within minutes due to the effects of cold shock and incapacitation.
RMS Carpathia arrived about an hour and a half after the sinking and rescued all of the survivors by on 15 April, some nine and a half hours after the collision. The disaster shocked the world and caused widespread outrage over the lack of lifeboats, lax regulations, and the unequal treatment of the three passenger classes during the evacuation. At the time of her entry into service on 2 April , Royal Mail Steamer RMS Titanic was the second of three [b] Olympic -class ocean liners , and was the largest ship in the world.
Her reciprocating engines were the largest that had ever been built, standing 40 feet 12 m high and with cylinders 9 feet 2. The passenger accommodation, especially the First Class section, was said to be "of unrivalled extent and magnificence",  indicated by the fares that First Class accommodation commanded. Even Third Class, though considerably less luxurious than Second and First Classes, was unusually comfortable by contemporary standards and was supplied with plentiful quantities of good food, providing her passengers with better conditions than many of them had experienced at home.
Titanic 's maiden voyage began shortly after noon on 10 April when she left Southampton on the first leg of her journey to New York. Her huge displacement caused both of the smaller ships to be lifted by a bulge of water and then dropped into a trough. New York ' s mooring cables could not take the sudden strain and snapped, swinging her around stern-first towards Titanic.
A nearby tugboat, Vulcan , came to the rescue by taking New York under tow, and Captain Smith ordered Titanic ' s engines to be put "full astern". The incident delayed Titanic ' s departure for about an hour, while the drifting New York was brought under control.
A few hours later Titanic called at Cherbourg Harbour in north-western France, a journey of 80 nautical miles km; 92 mi , where she took on passengers. By the time Titanic departed westwards across the Atlantic she was carrying crew members and 1, passengers.
This was only about half of her full passenger capacity of 2,,  as it was the low season and shipping from the UK had been disrupted by a coal miners' strike. He had four decades of seafaring experience and had served as captain of RMS Olympic , from which he was transferred to command Titanic. The six watch officers and 39 able seamen constituted only around five percent of the crew,  and most of these had been taken on at Southampton so had not had time to familiarise themselves with the ship.
The ice conditions were attributed to a mild winter that caused large numbers of icebergs to shift off the west coast of Greenland. A fire had begun in one of Titanic 's coal bins approximately 10 days prior to the ship's departure, and continued to burn for several days into the voyage, but it was over on 14 April.
On 14 April , Titanic 's radio operators [c] received six messages from other ships warning of drifting ice, which passengers on Titanic had begun to notice during the afternoon. The ice conditions in the North Atlantic were the worst for any April in the previous 50 years which was the reason why the lookouts were unaware that they were about to steam into a line of drifting ice several miles wide and many miles long.
At the time, all wireless operators on ocean liners were employees of the Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and not members of their ship's crew; their primary responsibility was to send messages for the passengers, with weather reports as a secondary concern. The first warning came at from RMS Caronia reporting "bergs, growlers [d] and field ice".
At , RMS Baltic relayed a report from the Greek ship Athenia that she had been "passing icebergs and large quantities of field ice". At , the German ship SS Amerika , which was a short distance to the south, reported she had "passed two large icebergs". The reason is unclear, but it may have been forgotten because the radio operators had to fix faulty equipment.
SS Californian reported "three large bergs" at , and at , the steamer Mesaba reported: "Saw much heavy pack ice and great number large icebergs. Also field ice. The radio operator, Jack Phillips , may have failed to grasp its significance because he was preoccupied with transmitting messages for passengers via the relay station at Cape Race , Newfoundland; the radio set had broken down the day before, resulting in a backlog of messages that the two operators were trying to clear.
Shut up! I'm working Cape Race. According to Fifth Officer Harold Lowe , the custom was "to go ahead and depend upon the lookouts in the crow's nest and the watch on the bridge to pick up the ice in time to avoid hitting it". The North Atlantic liners prioritised time-keeping above all other considerations, sticking rigidly to a schedule that would guarantee their arrival at an advertised time. They were frequently driven at close to their full speed, treating hazard warnings as advisories rather than calls to action.
It was widely believed that ice posed little risk; close calls were not uncommon, and even head-on collisions had not been disastrous.
In , SS Kronprinz Wilhelm , a German liner, had rammed an iceberg and suffered a crushed bow, but was still able to complete her voyage. That same year, Titanic 's future captain, Edward Smith, declared in an interview that he could not "imagine any condition which would cause a ship to founder. Modern shipbuilding has gone beyond that. As Titanic approached her fatal collision, most passengers had gone to bed, and command of the bridge had passed from Second Officer Charles Lightoller to First Officer William Murdoch.
Lookouts Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee were occupying the crow's nest, 29 metres 95 ft above the deck. The air temperature had fallen to near freezing, and the ocean was completely calm. Colonel Archibald Gracie , one of the survivors of the disaster, later wrote that "the sea was like glass, so smooth that the stars were clearly reflected.
Although the air was clear, there was no moon , and with the sea so calm, there was nothing to give away the position of the nearby icebergs; had the sea been rougher, waves breaking against the icebergs would have made them more visible. At , Fleet and Lee noticed a slight haze on the horizon ahead of them, but did not make anything of it. Some experts now believe that this haze was actually a mirage caused by cold waters meeting warm air—similar to a water mirage in the desert—when Titanic entered Iceberg Alley.
This would have resulted in a raised horizon, blinding the lookouts from spotting anything far away. Nine minutes later, at , Fleet spotted an iceberg in Titanic ' s path. He rang the lookout bell three times and telephoned the bridge to inform Sixth Officer James Moody.
Fleet asked, "Is there anyone there? He also rang "full astern" on the ship's telegraphs. According to Fourth Officer Joseph Boxhall , Murdoch told Captain Smith that he was attempting to "hard-a-port around [the iceberg]", suggesting that he was attempting a "port around" manoeuvre — to first swing the bow around the obstacle, then swing the stern so that both ends of the ship would avoid a collision.
There was a delay before either order went into effect; the steam-powered steering mechanism took up to 30 seconds to turn the ship's tiller,  and the complex task of setting the engines into reverse would also have taken some time to accomplish. This reduced the rudder's effectiveness, therefore impairing the turning ability of the ship. Had Murdoch turned the ship while maintaining her forward speed, Titanic might have missed the iceberg with feet to spare.
In , Louise Patten asserted that her grandfather, Charles Lightoller who died before she was born claimed that the helmsman Robert Hichens initially panicked and turned the rudder in the wrong direction. She said that subsequently Bruce Ismay ordered Titanic to continue "slow ahead" in the belief that the ship was unsinkable, and that this had never been revealed because of the insurance implications. In the event, Titanic ' s heading changed just in time to avoid a head-on collision, but the change in direction caused the ship to strike the iceberg with a glancing blow.
An underwater spur of ice scraped along the starboard side of the ship for about seven seconds; chunks of ice dislodged from upper parts of the berg fell onto her forward decks. The impact with the iceberg was long thought to have produced a huge opening in Titanic 's hull, "not less than feet 91 m in length, 10 feet 3 m above the level of the keel", as one writer later put it. Modern ultrasound surveys of the wreck have found that the actual damage to the hull was very similar to Wilding's statement, consisting of six narrow openings covering a total area of only about 12 to 13 square feet 1.
According to Paul K. Matthias, who made the measurements, the damage consisted of a "series of deformations in the starboard side that start and stop along the hull The gaps, the longest of which measures about 39 feet 12 m long, appear to have followed the line of the hull plates.
This suggests that the iron rivets along the plate seams snapped off or popped open to create narrow gaps through which water flooded. An engineer from Titanic 's builders, Harland and Wolff , suggested this scenario at the British Wreck Commissioner's inquiry following the disaster, but his view was discounted. No one could believe that the great ship was sunk by a little sliver.
Recovered pieces of Titanic 's hull plates appear to have shattered on impact with the iceberg without bending. The plates in the central part of Titanic 's hull covering approximately 60 percent of the total were held together with triple rows of mild steel rivets, but the plates in the bow and stern were held together with double rows of wrought iron rivets which may have been near their stress limits even before the collision.
Above the waterline, there was little evidence of the collision. The stewards in the first class dining room noticed a shudder, which they thought might have been caused by the ship shedding a propeller blade. Many of the passengers felt a bump or shudder — "just as though we went over about a thousand marbles",  as one survivor put it — but did not know what had happened.
Engine Oiler Walter Hurst recalled being "awakened by a grinding crash along the starboard side. No one was very much alarmed but knew we had struck something. The ship began to flood immediately, with water pouring in at an estimated rate of 7 long tons 7. Hesketh and leading stoker Frederick Barrett were both struck by a jet of icy water in No. The stokers and firemen were ordered to reduce the fires and vent the boilers, sending great quantities of steam up the funnel venting pipes.
They were waist-deep in freezing water by the time they finished their work. Titanic ' s lower decks were divided into sixteen compartments. Each compartment was separated from its neighbour by a bulkhead running the width of the ship; there were fifteen bulkheads in all.
Each bulkhead extended at least to the underside of E Deck, nominally one deck, or about 11 feet 3. The two nearest the bow and the six nearest the stern went one deck further up. Each bulkhead could be sealed by watertight doors. The engine rooms and boiler rooms on the tank top deck had vertically closing doors that could be controlled remotely from the bridge, lowered automatically by a float if water was present, or closed manually by the crew.
These took about 30 seconds to close; warning bells and alternative escape routes were provided so that the crew would not be trapped by the doors. Above the tank top level, on the Orlop Deck, F Deck and E Deck, the doors closed horizontally and were manually operated.
They could be closed at the door itself or from the deck above. Although the watertight bulkheads extended well above the water line, they were not sealed at the top. If too many compartments were flooded, the ship's bow would settle deeper in the water, and water would spill from one compartment to the next in sequence, rather like water spilling across the top of an ice cube tray.
This is what happened to Titanic , which had suffered damage to the forepeak tank, the three forward holds and No. Titanic was only designed to float with any two compartments flooded, but she could remain afloat with certain combinations of three or even four compartments—the first four—open to the ocean.