Why does a ball go farther when hit with an aluminum bat?
Often hit the ball far The best bat for power hitters is an end loaded bat that allows you to hit the ball farther. The difference between end loaded and balanced softball bats is the weight distribution. Essentially, “end loaded” means that a 28 ounce bat feels like it’s 30 ounces. Players in the late s and ’30s actually pounded nails or needles into the barrel of their bats to make them heavier. They intuited (correctly) that a heavier bat would hit the ball farther, and they concluded (incorrectly) that the heavier, the better. And so we hear tales of ounce clubs being wielded in the batter’s .
In the early days of baseballall bats were made of wood, usually ash, which meant they performed farthet. If a fype blasted a ball farther, you could identify the person's swing technique or physical strength as the underlying cause. Then, in the s, aluminum bats began pinging their way across diamonds and, almost immediately, observers wondered if a batter's metal mattered more than his mettle. Despite the controversyaluminum bats became a mainstay of amateur baseball as manufacturers, such as Louisville Slugger and Rawlings, introduced full lines of metal and composite bats.
In competition, some of these bats led to wicked hits fartheer caused serious injuries and even death. InAmerican Legion pitcher Brandon Patch died when a line drive baseabll a metal bat struck him in the temple.
Similar tragedies occurred in and All of these incidents stirred debate and discussion, but they didn't prove, objectively and quantitatively, whether aluminum fafther hit balls harder, farther and faster than wooden bats. Luckily, science has been able to provide some important insights on the topic.
First, let's start with what makes aluminum bats so different in the first place. The biggest difference, besides the metal-vs. If you cut an aluminum bat along its length, you would find a thin-walled barrel surrounding a cavity of air. The only solid part is the handle, which is filled with a black, rubberlike material. That means you can make aluminum bats longer without making them unnecessarily heavy.
Experts refer to this characteristic as a bat's drop -- its weight in ounces minus its length in darther. Aluminum bats often have drops of -3 30 ounces minus 33 inches, for example. Wood bats can have drops of -1 or -2 30 ounces minus 31 or 32 inches. Another key difference is the location of a bat's center of mass CMor balance point. Because an aluminum bat has a hollow barrel and a solid handle, its CM shifts closer to the handle. A wooden bat is solid through and through, so its CM tends bbaseball be located much farther down the barrel, closer to the end.
The shift of the balance point closer what type of baseball bat hits a baseball farther the handle causes aluminum bats to have a much lower moment of inertiaa term describing the tendency of a body to resist angular acceleration.
As a result of these differences, aluminum bats are much easier to swing when compared to wooden bats of the same length. In fact, increasing the velocity of the bat increases batted ball speedor BBSmuch more than increasing the mass of a bat.
According to some research, doubling the weight of a bat increases BBS by about 17 percent. Doubling the swing speed, however, leads to a 35 percent increase in BBS. In fact, for every mile 1. Aluminum and fafther bats behave quite differently when they strike a ball.
Both types of bats vibrate ty;e the moment of impact, but wooden bats do so in one direction only -- along their length. These low-frequency bending vibrations dissipate much of the energy associated with the bat-ball collision, which means wooden bats don't return as much energy to the ball. Aluminum bats vibrate in two directions -- along their how to swim a 500 and radially as the metal shell squeezes in and then contracts out.
This second class of vibrations occurs in a set of typf known as hoop modes. The fundamental frequency, or first hoop mode, acts like a spring during collision, compressing in and then expanding out and returning a large amount of energy to the ball.
This "trampoline effect" is another reason why aluminum bats lead to higher batted ball speeds. The bottom line: Non-wood bandwidth limit exceeded how to solve do what type of baseball bat hits a baseball farther to how to copy a copy locked places on roblox batted ball speeds and, as a result, to harder line drives and deeper fly balls.
But there's an, ahem, aluminum lining to this story: The process typee to manufacture metal what type of baseball bat hits a baseball farther can be tightly controlled. By fine-tuning their alloy selection and manufacturing processes, companies like Rawlings and Louisville Slugger can produce metal bats that perform more like wood bats.
Sincewhen the NCAA implemented a new standard effectively requiring non-wood bats to produce batted ball speeds no greater than wood, ffarther averages, home runs per game and earned-run averages are the lowest they've been in more than 30 years [source: Russell ].
One of the arguments for aluminum bats what electric plugs are used in mexico that they cost less to own, primarily because they don't break. But what about environmental costs? I wonder bag bat-making process has a lower carbon footprint? Might make an interesting sidebar to the controversy. The Basics. Which hit farther: wood bats or aluminum bats? Basseball William Harris.
The Penguin aka Ron Cey poses with what appears to be an aluminum bat during his Dodger days in See more sports pictures. It's Not Just Weight: Aluminum vs. Wood Aluminum and wooden bats behave quite differently when they strike a ball. Author's Note One of the arguments for aluminum bats is that they cost less whst own, primarily because they don't break.
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Coburn, Davin. Russell and Lloyd V. International Sports Engineering Association, University of Illinois. April 16, Penn State University. Cite This! More Awesome Stuff.
Babe Ruth's Baseball Bat During an elastic collision, a ball experiences an incredibly large force for an incredibly short time, causing it to reverse direction at a speed that can be greater than.
This article was published in the Summer Baseball Research Journal. Every batter has unique psychological approaches, swing mechanics, habits and characteristics. Even so, one thing about hitting is true for every hitter: Every time he walks up to the plate, he has only one tool to work with.
In and , Babe Ruth hit more home runs than every other team in the American League. He declared that he too would start trying to swing for the fences. With a new mindset and a hands-together grip, Cobb went 6-for-6 that day, with two singles, a double, and three home runs, giving him sixteen total bases—still an American League record shared with several others for a nine-inning game.
Satisfied he had proved his point, Cobb returned to his familiar grip and style: trying to get base hits instead of hit home runs. Ruth and Cobb are both in the Hall of Fame, but each hitter excelled in his own way. Indeed, every batter has unique psychological approaches, swing mechanics, habits, and characteristics. Skillful use of this tool, the baseball bat, has captured the attention of fans, tried the patience of athletes, and turned men into legends.
Baseball as played today emerged from a cauldron of other games. In the late nineteenth century, the rules changed often, contributing to a seesaw dynamic within the game. For a few years, batters would have the edge and pitchers would be disadvantaged; subsequent rule changes would turn the tables.
Exploited rules and inherent advantages disappeared quickly, leaving rules that maintained a good balance of offense and defense. Around , rules about the bat had evolved that were simultaneously simple and thorough.
In the decades since, bat-specific rules have remained relatively unchanged. The bats themselves, however, are a different story. One important rule change in the early turbulent years came about in Batters could no longer request a high or low pitch. Thus the adversarial approach to pitching—planted by Jim Creighton in —fully bloomed.
Instead of trying to help the hitter, pitchers had a new objective. As pitchers experimented with the ball, hitters responded by experimenting with the bat. Indeed, as the sport evolved, the bat changed significantly—in shape, size, and material—as batters sought a competitive advantage.
Examining the history and underlying science will allow us to gauge the success of these experiments. Each player made his own, often starting with an axe handle or wagon tongue and shaping it to his liking using hand tools. Through trial and error, hickory wood was found to be successful. It was hard and resilient, so players rarely needed to replace bats. But as the game became more sophisticated, so did bat making. As the years went on, ash wood became very popular with players. So did that boy and his father.
That is how Hillerich and Bradsby, the manufacturer of the popular Louisville Slugger line of baseball bats, got their start. A trend had begun. Instead of making their bats, more and more players in the s began purchasing bats that were professionally lathed. Experiments were not restricted to trying out different types of material. Briefly popular, flat bats fell into obscurity as longer bats with slight tapers and knobs at the handle became prevalent.
Players continued to tweak the weight distribution and barrel and handle diameters, but, for the most part, bats used after look remarkably similar to each other. To understand the experiments on bats, we must understand the goal of the batter. Runs were scored via bunts, hit and runs, and stolen bases. Batters choked up and slapped at the ball, placing hits between infielders or just over their heads. Slugging—swinging mightily— was a frowned-on approach.
Since gloves were deemed unmanly, they were often not used, and errors were common. Even if a batter did hit the ball in the proximity of a fielder, he still might reach base on an error. Also contributing to the allure of the scientific game was an English game that heavily influenced baseball: cricket. In cricket, batsmen may get only one turn to bat per match, so the ability to place hits and avoid being put out is important. The first baseball players took this idea of guiding their hits and brought it to the diamond.
Many players, most notably Ty Cobb, adopted a split-hands grip, hoping to increase their bat control. But bat manufacturers sought to improve the tool itself by making a bat that was easier to swing.
Manufacturers tried unconventional shapes; many bats that hit the market looked familiar to us from the knob up but had baseball-sized chunks of wood connected below the knob. In advertisements from this era it was explained that the chunks were intended to give the bat a more even weight distribution.
In other words, manufacturers were hoping to alter the moment of inertia of the bat. It relates both to how the weight is distributed throughout the object and where the point of rotation is located. MOI is a value, just like weight is. And just as a heavier object will be harder to lift, an object with a higher MOI will be harder to swing. Two bats can have the same static weight, but if their shapes are different they may have different MOI and different swing weights.
The lemon-, ball-, and mushroom-knobbed bats used in the Deadball Era were all successful in lowering the MOI when compared with similarly weighted bats shaped like those used today. So these bats felt lighter when swung and gave a player more bat control than if he used a similarly weighted bat of twenty-first-century shape. However, a decrease in MOI means a less efficient collision between the bat and ball. While these bats succeeded in increasing bat control, other peculiar shapes were introduced to help batters play the scientific game.
The goal of the larger barrel was to give Groh a bigger striking surface; the thinner handle would make it easier for his small hands to grasp the bat. Groh had a fine career, but whether his bat helped is difficult to determine. Interestingly, because of the peculiar shape, if his bat were the same length as one used today, the MOI would be higher. However, if it were the same weight as one used today, the MOI would be lower. His unique batting stance and steady improvement before and after using the bat indicate that many factors contributed to his success.
This bat, named for Lajoie, drew a lot of attention. Many players tried it, hoping to emulate Lajoie, one of the outstanding hitters of his day and of baseball history, for that matter. A third oddly shaped bat was patented in by inventor Emile Kinst. His patent drawings more closely resemble a jai alai stick than a baseball bat. In his patent US , Kinst claimed his bat had two unique features.
The first was the shape of the barrel: When viewed from the side, it traced not a line but an arc. He hoped that the curved barrel would allow the hitter to spray the ball to all parts of the field and that it would impart spin to the ball, making it harder to field.
A player who mastered the use of this bat would be very hard to defend. The second curious trait was the series of longitudinal grooves in the front of the curved barrel. Their purpose was to aid the hitter in hitting sharp line drives, avoiding foul tips and fly balls.
Despite how crazy not to mention illegal his bat may seem, Kinst incorporated one design feature into his bat that was well ahead of its time. In the idea of bending the bat resurfaced with the patent of a bent-handled baseball bat.
Patent 3 , 21 January Notice the goal of the dog-leg bat was to increase the power, not the placement of the hit. Bats invented before all tried to help the hitter play the scientific game. Whether by a change in the weight distribution, the addition of a knob, or an alteration of the shape, all were designed to give the batter more control over where he hit the baseball.
Clearly, between the early s and the s there was a change in the goal of design improvements. A new objective of experiments in bats suggests a change, in the approach to hitting, from what had been around for over half a century—since the beginning of baseball no less. What could bring about so monumental a shift?
It would take only 54 swings by one man to forever change the game. Remember, Babe Ruth and Ty Cobb disagreed sharply on this very issue: Is hitting scientifically better than slugging?
As it turned out, Cobb was the last of one era, Ruth the first of another. For decades, hitters had been playing the scientific game, but this low-scoring approach went out the window when the Babe was up. Setting incredibly lofty single-season home run records, he swung for the fences every time. A bright spot after the disillusionment bred by the Black Sox scandal, he became one of the first national celebrities; as his popularity rose, so did attendance figures. Starting with him, batters have been thinking in terms of how far they could hit the ball, not how often.
Old-school players were frustrated. Ruth succeeded in changing what had been the norm for eighty years. On the whole, hitting the ball sharply gives defenders less chance to field it and, moreover, increases the odds it will fly over the fence.
Hitting the ball hard became the new objective. The question for athletes and inventors then becomes what variables can be tweaked to help a player hit the ball hard—to increase BBS? We can analyze which properties of the bat affect BBS. In physics terms, the momentum of the bat-ball system is conserved during the swing, so the sum of the initial momenta must be equal to the sum of the final momenta.
Though simplifying the collision, examining the linear case will yield meaningful insights. The equation for the conservation of linear momentum of the bat-ball collision looks like 1.
Since the goal of the batter is to hit the ball hard, not to guide it anywhere in particular, vb final needs to be as large as possible. Assuming that the mass of the bat and ball stay the same throughout the collision, the equation can be rearranged using simple algebra to yield 2.