English Grammar 101: All You Need to Know
Sentences are made of two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject is the person or thing that acts or is described in the sentence. The predicate, on the other hand, is that action or description. Complete sentences need both the subject and the predicate. We use ought to when talking about things which are desired or ideal: They ought to have more parks in the city centre. We ought to eat lots of fruit and vegetables every day. We use ought to .
Just ask a friend what is the role of prepositions within sentences, or what are the four moods of verbs, and I am sure that you will see a puzzled look on his face.
Understanding the basic grammar rules is essential for communicating efficiently, but most of us have forgotten those concepts years ago. In order to solve this problem we decided to put together all the basic rules on a single page, so that you can use it as a refresher, or print it out for future reference.
Sentences are made of two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject is the person or thing that acts or is described in the sentence. The predicate, on the other hand, is that action or description. This is a complete sentence composed of two clauses. There are mainly two types of clauses: independent clauses what is an 1- 94 form subordinate clauses.
Independent clauses act as complete sentences, while subordinate clauses cannot stand alone and need another clause to complete their meaning. For example:. Independent clause example: The boy went to the school. Subordinate clause example: After the boy went to the school….
A group of two or more grammatically linked words that do not have subject and predicate is a phrase. Example of a complete sentence: The girl is at home, and tomorrow she is going to the amusement park. Example of a clause: The girl is at home Example of a phrase: The girl. Phrases act like parts of speech inside clauses. That is, they can act as nouns, adjectives, adverbs and so on. The function the word serves in a sentence is what makes it whatever part of speech it is. Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the nounthe pronounthe adjectivethe verbthe adverbthe prepositionthe conjunctionand the interjection.
We are going to cover them individually below. A noun is a word used to describe a person, place, thing, event, idea, and so on. Nouns represent one of the main elements of sentences, along with verbs, adjectives, prepositions and articles. Nouns usually function as subjects or objects within sentences, although they can also act as adjectives and adverbs. Used to describe a unique person or what you ought to know grammar, proper nouns always start with a capital letter. Examples include MaryIndiaand Manchester United.
Common nouns are used to describe persons or things in general. Examples include girlcountryand team. Nouns that can be perceived through the five senses are called concrete nouns. Examples include ballrainbow and melody.
Nouns that cannot be perceived through the five senses are called abstract nouns. Examples include lovecourageand childhood. Countable nouns Countable nouns can be counted.
They also have both a singular and a plural form. Examples include toyschildren and books. Examples include sympathylaughter and oxygen. Collective nouns are used to describe groups of things. Examples include flock, committee and murder. The English language has both regular and irregular plural forms of nouns. The most common case is when you need to add -s to the noun.
For what you ought to know grammar one car and two cars. It might appear overwhelming, but after using these nouns a couple of times you will be able to memorize their plural form easily. Pronouns are used to replace nouns within sentences, making them less repetitive and mechanic. Subjective personal pronouns. As the name implies, subjective pronouns how to install kraft faced insulation as subjects within sentences.
They are: I, you, he, she, we, theyand it. Objective personal pronouns. These pronouns act as the object of verbs within sentences. They are: me, you, him, her, us, them and it. Possessive personal pronouns. These pronouns are used to indicate possession, and they are placed after the object in question as opposed to possessive adjectives like my and yourwhich are placed before the object.
They are: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs and its. Example of possessive adjective: This is my car. Example of possessive pronoun: This car is mine. Reflexive pronouns. This special class of pronouns is used when the object is the same as the subject on the sentence.
They are myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, themselves and itself. Interrogative pronouns. As you probably guessed these pronouns are used to ask questions. They are what, which, who, whom and whose. Demonstrative pronouns. These pronouns are used to indicate a noun and distinguish it from other entities. Notice that demonstrative pronouns replace the noun while demonstrative determiners modify them.
They are: this, that, these, those. Example of a demonstrative determiner: This house is ugly. Example of a demonstrative pronoun: This is the right one. Indefinite pronouns. As the name implies, indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific thing, place or person. There are many of what you ought to know grammar, including anyone, anywhere, everyone, none, someone and so on.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun. There are two kinds: attributive and predicative. An adjective is used attributively when how to make lemongrass spray stands next to a noun and describes it. The man felt a paralyzing fear. What you ought to know grammar oatmeal tastes better than plain oatmeal. The usual place of the adjective in English is in front of the noun.
You can have a whole string of adjectives if you like: The tall thin evil-looking cowboy roped the short, fat, inoffensive calf. Sometimes, for rhetorical or poetic effect, the adjective can come after the noun: Sarah Plain and Tall book title This is the forest primeval.
An adjective is used predicatively when a verb separates it from the noun or pronoun it describes: The umpire was wrong. The crowd was furious.
She seems tired today. This soup tastes bad. What you ought to know grammar verbs that can be completed by predicate adjective s are called being verbs or copulative verbs. They include all the forms of to be and sensing verbs like seem, feeland taste. The demonstrative adjectives the and a an are so important in English that they have a special name: articles.
They are discussed separately below. The words aanand the are generally called articles and sometimes classed as a separate part of speech. In function, however, they can be grouped with the demonstrative adjectives that are used to point things out rather than describe them.
Definite Article The is called the definite article because it points out a particular object or class. This is the book I was talking about. The dodo bird is extinct. Indefinite Article A is called the indefinite article because it points out an object, but not any particular specimen. The indefinite article has two forms: A is used before words beginning with a consonant sound or an aspirated h how to buy a car from ebay motors a car, a lamb, a hope, a habit, a hotel.
An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound: an ape, an image, an untruth, an honorable man. Transitive Verbs A verb is transitive when the action is carried across to a receiver:.
The receiver is called the direct object. Grows what? Sang what? Intransitive Verbs A verb is intransitive when what you ought to know grammar action stays with the verb. It is not carried across to a receiver:. Corn grows.
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used to emphasize that you know about something because you made it, experienced it etc ‘Are you sure there’s no sugar in this coffee?’ ‘Of course. I ought to know – I made it!’ > know Examples from the Corpus I ought to know • I've had nine, so I ought to know. Each other, one another Everyone, everybody, everything, everywhere It No one, nobody, nothing, nowhere One One and one’s Pronouns Pronouns: indefinite (-body, -one, -thing, -where) Pronouns: one, you, we, they Pronouns: personal (I, me, you, him, it, they, etc.) Pronouns: possessive (my, mine, your, yours, etc.) Pronouns: reflexive .
Ought to is a semi-modal verb because it is in some ways like a modal verb and in some ways like a main verb. For example, unlike modal verbs, it is followed by to , but like modal verbs, it does not change form for person:. Ought to comes first in the verb phrase after the subject and before another verb :. Not: Medicine ought to can be free.
We ought not to have ordered so much food. The negative of ought to is not common. The subject and ought to change position to form questions. Ought she to call the police? Ought we to be more worried about the environment?
The question form of ought to is not very common. It is very formal. We usually use should instead. We use ought to when talking about things which are desired or ideal:. They ought to have more parks in the city centre. We ought to eat lots of fruit and vegetables every day. It can express regret:. We ought to have locked the gate.
I often think that I ought to have studied medicine not pharmacy. I would be happier now if I had studied medicine. We can use ought to when we talk about what is likely or probable:. There ought to be some good films at the cinema this weekend. Ought to and should are similar in meaning. Should is more common than ought to. Ought to is more formal than should :.
There ought to be more street lights here. I really ought to walk my dog more. In speaking, we normally use should as a tag for clauses with ought to :. We ought not to have to pay for basic medicines, should we? Modality: introduction. Breaking the ice and throwing caution to the wind Weather idioms, Part 3.
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Adjectives Adjectives: forms Adjectives: order Adverbs Adverbs and adverb phrases: position Adverbs and adverb phrases: typical errors Adverbs: forms Adverbs: functions Adverbs: types. Adjective phrases Adjective phrases: functions Adjective phrases: position Adjectives and adjective phrases: typical errors Adverb phrases.
Comparison: adjectives bigger , biggest , more interesting Comparison: adverbs worse, more easily. Above or over? Across , over or through? Advice or advise? Affect or effect? All or every? All or whole? Allow , permit or let? Almost or nearly? Alone , lonely , or lonesome? Along or alongside? Already , still or yet? Also , as well or too? Alternate ly , alternative ly Although or though? Altogether or all together?
Amount of , number of or quantity of? Any more or anymore? Anyone , anybody or anything? Apart from or except for? Arise or rise? Around or round? Arouse or rouse? As or like? As , because or since? As , when or while? Been or gone? Begin or start? Beside or besides? Between or among? Born or borne? Bring , take and fetch Can , could or may? Classic or classical? Come or go? Consider or regard? Consist , comprise or compose? Content or contents? Different from , different to or different than?
Do or make? Down, downwards or downward? During or for? Each or every? East or eastern ; north or northern? Economic or economical? Efficient or effective? Elder , eldest or older , oldest? End or finish? Especially or specially? Every one or everyone? Except or except for? Expect , hope or wait? Experience or experiment?
Fall or fall down? Far or a long way? Further but not farther. Age Comparison: nouns more money , the most points Gender Piece words and group words Nouns Nouns and gender Nouns and prepositions Nouns: compound nouns Nouns: countable and uncountable Nouns: form Nouns: forming nouns from other words Nouns: singular and plural. Noun phrases Noun phrases: complements Noun phrases: noun phrases and verbs Noun phrases: order Noun phrases: two noun phrases together Noun phrases: uses.
Pronouns: possessive my , mine , your , yours , etc. Pronouns: reflexive myself , themselves , etc. Questions: interrogative pronouns what , who Relative pronouns Someone , somebody , something , somewhere That.